Outline of Fungi and fungus-like taxa

N N Wijayawardene, K D Hyde, LKT Al-Ani, L Tedersoo, D Haelewaters, K C Rajeshkumar, R L Zhao, A Aptroot, D V Leontyev, Saxena R K, Y S Tokarev, D Q Dai, P M Letcher, S L Stephenson, D Ertz, H. T Lumbsch, M Kukwa, I V Issi, H Madrid, A J L PhillipsL Selbmann, W P Pfliegler, E Horvath, K Bensch, P M Kirk, K Kolaříková, H A Raja, R Radek, V Papp, B Dima, J Ma, E Malosso, S Takamatsu, G Rambold, P B Gannibal, D Triebel, A K Gautam, S Avasthi, S Suetrong, E Timdal, Sally Fryar, G Delgado, Martina Reblova, M Doilom, S Dolatabadi, J Z Pawlowska, R A Humber, R Kodsueb, I Sanchez-Castro, B T Goto, D K A Silva, F A de Souza, Oehl F, G A da Silva, I R Silva, J Blaszkowski, K Jobim, L C Maria, F R Barbosa, P O Fiuza, P K Divakar, B D Shenoy, R F Castañeda-Ruiz, S Somrithipol, A A Lateef, S C Karunarathna, S Tibpromma, P E Mortimer, D N Wanasinghe, R Phookamsak, Y Xu, Y Wang, F Tian, P Alvarado, D W Li, I Kušan, N Matočec, A Mesic, Z Tkalcec, S S N Maharachchikumbura, G Papizadeh, G Heredia, F Wartchow, M Bakhshi, E Boehm, N Youssef, V P Hustad, J D Lawrey, A L C M A Santiago, J D P Bezerra, C M de Souza-Motta, A L Firmino, Q Tian, S Hongsanan, K Tanaka, A J Dissanayake, J S Monteiro, H P Grossart, A Suija, G Weerakoon, J Etayo, A Tsurykau, V. Vázquez, P Mungai, U Damm, Q R Li, H Zhang, S Boonmee, Y Z Lu, A G Becerra, B Kendrick, F Q Brearley, J Motiejūnaitė, B Sharma, R Khare, S Gaikwad, D S A Wijesundara, L Z Tang, M Q He, A Flakus, P Rodriguez-Flakus, M P Zhurbenko, E H C McKenzie, M Stadler, D J Bhatt, J K Liu, M Raza, Rajesh Jeewon, E S Nassonova, M Prieto, R G U Jayalal, M Erdoğdu, A Yurkov, Martin Schnittler, O N Shchepin, Y K Novozhilov, A G S Silva-Filho, E Gentekaki, P Lui, J C Cavender, Y Kang, S Mohammad, L F Zhang, R F Xu, M. C. Dayarathne, A H Ekanayaka, T C Wen, C Y Deng, S Navathe, D L Hawksworth, X L Fan, L S Dissanayake, E Kuhnert, H P Grossart, M Thines

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

561 Citations (Scopus)


This article provides an outline of the classification of the kingdom Fungi (including fossil fungi. i.e. dispersed spores, mycelia, sporophores, mycorrhizas). We treat 19 phyla of fungi. These are Aphelidiomycota, Ascomycota, Basidiobolomycota, Basidiomycota, Blastocladiomycota, Calcarisporiellomycota, Caulochytriomycota, Chytridiomycota, Entomophthoromycota, Entorrhizomycota, Glomeromycota, Kickxellomycota, Monoblepharomycota, Mortierellomycota, Mucoromycota, Neocallimastigomycota, Olpidiomycota, Rozellomycota and Zoopagomycota. The placement of all fungal genera is provided at the class-, order- and family-level. The described number of species per genus is also given. Notes are provided of taxa for which recent changes or disagreements have been presented. Fungus-like taxa that were traditionally treated as fungi are also incorporated in this outline (i.e. Eumycetozoa, Dictyosteliomycetes, Ceratiomyxomycetes and Myxomycetes). Four new taxa are introduced: Amblyosporida ord. nov. Neopereziida ord. nov. and Ovavesiculida ord. nov. in Rozellomycota, and Protosporangiaceae fam. nov. in Dictyosteliomycetes. Two different classifications (in outline section and in discussion) are provided for Glomeromycota and Leotiomycetes based on recent studies. The phylogenetic reconstruction of a four-gene dataset (18S and 28S rRNA, RPB1, RPB2) of 433 taxa is presented, including all currently described orders of fungi.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1060-1456
Number of pages397
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • Amblyosporida ord. nov
  • Ascomycota
  • Basal clades
  • Basidiomycota
  • Classification
  • Emendation
  • Four new taxa
  • Microsporidia
  • Neopereziida ord. nov
  • Ovavesiculida ord. nov
  • Protosporangiaceae fam. nov
  • Redonographaceae stat nov


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