Past-Present Differential Inclusion: Australia's Targeted Deportation of Pacific Islanders, 1901 to 2021

Henrietta McNeill, Marinella Marmo

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2 Citations (Scopus)
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In Australia, past and present, Pacific Islanders have been labelled as undesirable others, included to temporarily fill labour shortages as required, controlled while resident in the country and removed when no longer deemed necessary. Pacific Islanders' experiences in Australia reveal the inception, continuity and durability of differential inclusion produced by border control mechanisms. This paper traces Australia's history of deporting Pacific Islanders over more than a century: from indentured labour and blackbirding, colonial occupation of Pacific Islands and the White Australia Policy, to more recent patterns of selective inclusion, such as the labour mobility schemes, to the disproportionate effects on Pacific Islanders of modifications to the criteria for deportability introduced in 2014 with the amendments to Section 501 of the Migration Act 1958 (Cth). By tracing the past-present circular border policies, this paper argues that the high number of Pasifika New Zealanders deported from Australia represents a continuation of a regime of differential inclusion.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)42-55
Number of pages14
JournalInternational Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2023


  • bad character
  • circular migration
  • Deportation
  • differential inclusion
  • migration policy
  • Pacific Islands


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