Perceived Social Norms as Determinants of Adherence to Public Health Measures Related to COVID-19 in Bali, Indonesia

Putu Ayu Indrayathi, Pande Putu Januraga, Putu Erma Pradnyani, Hailay Abrha Gesesew, Paul Russel Ward

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13 Citations (Scopus)
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Introduction: Before the widespread availability of an effective COVID-19 vaccine, it is crucial to control the rate of transmission by ensuring adherence to behavioral modifications, such as wearing masks, physical distancing, and washing hands, all of which can be implemented as public health measures. Focusing on the conditions in Bali, this study explored the level of compliance to public health measures targeted at COVID-19 and identified the determinants of compliance via the values, rules, and knowledge approach. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study conducted an online survey using the Google Form application from June 29 to July 5, 2020. The minimum required sample size was 664. Inclusion criteria were set as follows: 18 years of age or older and residing in Bali during the data collection period. Adherence was measured based on nine protocol indicators that were rated using a four-point Likert scale. A multiple linear regression analysis was then conducted to determine the associated factors of adherence to public health measures. Results: Of the 954 survey respondents, data from 743 were included for analysis. The average level of adherence to public health measures was 32.59 (range of 20–36). The linear regression analysis showed that perceived health benefits from public health measures, being female, and having COVID-19 test histories were significantly associated with adherence to public health measures. Conclusions: For public health measures targeted at COVID-19, adherence was strongly associated with perceived social norms, in which individuals played social community roles by adapting to standardized public health measures. It is thus imperative for governments to support and monitor public health measures during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Original languageEnglish
Article number646764
Number of pages8
JournalFrontiers in Public Health
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2021


  • adherence
  • COVID-19
  • online survey
  • prevention protocol
  • social norm


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