In total hip replacement (THR), wear particles play a significant role in osteolysis and have been observed in locations as remote as the tip of femoral stem. However, there is no clear understanding of the factors and mechanisms causing, or contributing to particle migration to the periprosthetic tissue. Interfacial gaps provide a route for particle laden joint fluid to transport wear particles to the periprosthetic tissue and cause osteolysis. It is likely that capsular pressure, gap dimensions and micromotion of the gap during cyclic loading of an implant, play defining roles to facilitate particle migration. In order to obtain a better understanding of the above mechanisms and factors, transient two-dimensional computational fluid dynamic simulations have been performed for the flow in the lateral side of a cementless stem-femur system including the joint capsule, a gap in communication with the capsule and the surrounding bone. A discrete phase model to describe particle motion has been employed. Key findings from these simulations include: (1) Particles were shown to enter the periprosthetic tissue along the entire length of the gap but with higher concentrations at both proximal and distal ends of the gap and a maximum rate of particle accumulation in the distal regions. (2) High capsular pressure, rather than gap micromotion, has been shown to be the main driving force for particle migration to periprosthetic tissue. (3) Implant micromotion was shown to pump out rather than draw in particles to the interfacial gaps. (4) Particle concentrations are consistent with known distributions of (i) focal osteolysis at the distal end of the gap and (ii) linear osteolysis along the entire gap length.
|Number of pages||20|
|Journal||Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials|
|Publication status||Published - 2014|