Consistent with policy reforms originating in the US, and subsequently adopted in the UK and Europe, the Australian disability sector is currently experiencing an era of unprecedented and transformative policy change towards personalisation and self-directed care. The National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS) introduces the use of personalised budgets, the main objective of which is to support the social and economic participation of people with disabilities. Against this background, this article discusses the potential for health economic techniques to be usefully applied in the disability sector from two main perspectives. Firstly, to apply an economic evaluation framework to generate an evidence base of the cost effectiveness of new and existing services and supports. Secondly, through the development and application of discrete choice experiments, a choice based method for building the knowledge and capacity of consumers to make informed preferences between alternative services and supports.