Pictograms to aid laypeople in identifying the addictiveness of gambling products (PictoGRRed study)

Amandine Luquiens, Morgane Guillou, Julie Giustiniani, Servane Barrault, Julie Caillon, Helena Delmas, Sophia Achab, Bruno Bento, Joël Billieux, Aymeric Brody, Paul Brunault, Gaëlle Challet-Bouju, Mariano Chóliz, Luke Clark, Aurélien Cornil, Jean Michel Costes, Gaetan Devos, Rosa Díaz, Ana Estevez, Giacomo GrassiAnders Hakansson, Yasser Khazaal, Daniel L. King, Francisco Labrador, Hibai Lopez-Gonzalez, Philip Newall, José C. Perales, Aurélien Ribadier, Guillaume Sescousse, Stephen Sharman, Pierre Taquet, Isabelle Varescon, Cora Von Hammerstein, Thierry Bonjour, Lucia Romo, Marie Grall-Bronnec

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

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Abstract

The structural addictive characteristics of gambling products are important targets for prevention, but can be unintuitive to laypeople. In the PictoGRRed (Pictograms for Gambling Risk Reduction) study, we aimed to develop pictograms that illustrate the main addictive characteristics of gambling products and to assess their impact on identifying the addictiveness of gambling products by laypeople. We conducted a three-step study: (1) use of a Delphi consensus method among 56 experts from 13 countries to reach a consensus on the 10 structural addictive characteristics of gambling products to be illustrated by pictograms and their associated definitions, (2) development of 10 pictograms and their definitions, and (3) study in the general population to assess the impact of exposure to the pictograms and their definitions (n = 900). French-speaking experts from the panel assessed the addictiveness of gambling products (n = 25), in which the mean of expert's ratings was considered as the true value. Participants were randomly provided with the pictograms and their definitions, or with a standard slogan, or with neither (control group). We considered the control group as representing the baseline ability of laypeople to assess the addictiveness of gambling products. Each group and the French-speaking experts rated the addictiveness of 14 gambling products. The judgment criterion was the intraclass coefficients (ICCs) between the mean ratings of each group and the experts, reflecting the level of agreement between each group and the experts. Exposure to the pictograms and their definition doubled the ability of laypeople to assess the addictiveness of gambling products compared with that of the group that read a slogan or the control group (ICC = 0.28 vs. 0.14 (Slogan) and 0.14 (Control)). Laypeople have limited awareness of the addictive characteristics of gambling products. The pictograms developed herein represent an innovative tool for universally empowering prevention and for selective prevention.

Original languageEnglish
Article number22510
Number of pages12
JournalScientific Reports
Volume12
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 29 Dec 2022

Keywords

  • Human behaviour
  • Risk factors

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