Background and aims: Plasma concentrations of transthyretin (TTR), a negative acute-phase protein, can be influenced by many factors including aging. Under physiological circumstances, TTR concentrations are very low in the fetus, increase slowly after birth up to the fifth decade and, then, decrease slowly. Some studies have shown sex-related differences up to about 70 years, when the differences disappear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the change in TTR concentrations in healthy males and females aged more than sixty, including numerous centenarians living in Sardinia, a large Italian island located in the Mediterranean Sea. Methods: The study sample consisted of 211 healthy subjects grouped by age and sex (male/female ratio: 1:1). Plasma TTR was assessed using a non-competitive enzyme immunoassay (ELISA Assaypro LLC, prealbumin AssayMAX Human ELISA Kit). Results: In subjects aged between 60 and 99 years, plasma TTR concentrations were higher compared to the reference ranges reported by CRM 470. Moreover, unlike other studies, sex-related differences in TTR concentrations were only observed in nonagenarians and centenarians. Conclusions: We hypothesize that there are TTR-related genetic differences between the Sardinian population and other Caucasian ethnic groups. Further studies and a larger sample are needed to confirm our hypothesis.