Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men and the second leading cause of male cancer deaths. The current blood test for detecting prostate cancers measures prostate-specific antigen. It has many limitations including a very high rate of false positives. Herein, prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) based immunocapture and hexaminolevulinate (HAL) based photodetection are integrated into a new diagnostic device designed to selectively identify whole prostate cancer cells from voided urine with the aim of providing an accurate noninvasive alternative to current diagnosis methods. Prestained, prostate cancer cells spiked in urine samples at concentrations ranging from 1500 to 2000 cells/ml were captured with 89% sensitivity and 95% specificity. HAL, a cancer specific photosensitizer, was then used to circumvent the need for prestaining. Optimum HAL incubation conditions were identified (50 μM at 37 °C for 2 h) where the mean HAL-induced fluorescence intensity of LNCaP cells was three times that of healthy PNT2 cells, thus providing an independent way to discriminate captured cancer cells from background metabolites. Combining anti-PSMA immunocapture with HAL-induced fluorescent detection, 86% sensitivity and 88% selectivity were achieved, thereby proving the validity of the dual-method for the selective photospecific detection of prostate cancer cells.
- Prostate cancer
- photodynamic diagnosis
- prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)
- plasma enabled devices