Pre-frailty factors in community-dwelling 40-75 year olds: Opportunities for successful ageing

S. J. Gordon, N. Baker, M. Kidd, A. Maeder, K. A. Grimmer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: There is little known about pre-frailty attributes or when changes which contribute to frailty might be detectable and amenable to change. This study explores pre-frailty and frailty in independent community-dwelling adults aged 40-75 years. Methods: Participants were recruited through local council networks, a national bank and one university in Adelaide, Australia. Fried frailty phenotype scores were calculated from measures of unintentional weight loss, exhaustion, low physical activity levels, poor hand grip strength and slow walking speed. Participants were identified as not frail (no phenotypes), pre-frail (one or two phenotypes) or frail (three or more phenotypes). Factor analysis was applied to binary forms of 25 published frailty measures Differences were tested in mean factor scores between the three Fried frailty phenotypes and ROC curves estimated predictive capacity of factors. Results: Of 656 participants (67% female; mean age 59.9 years, SD 10.6) 59.2% were classified as not frail, 39.0% pre-frail and 1.8% frail. There were no gender or age differences. Seven frailty factors were identified, incorporating all 25 frailty measures. Factors 1 and 7 significantly predicted progression from not-frail to pre-frail (Factor 1 AUC 0.64 (95%CI 0.60-0.68, combined dynamic trunk stability and lower limb functional strength, balance, foot sensation, hearing, lean muscle mass and low BMI; Factor 7 AUC 0.55 (95%CI 0.52-0.59) comprising continence and nutrition. Factors 3 and 4 significantly predicted progression from pre-frail to frail (Factor 3 AUC 0.65 (95% CI 0.59-0.70)), combining living alone, sleep quality, depression and anxiety, and lung function; Factor 4 AUC 0.60 (95%CI 0.54-0.66) comprising perceived exertion on exercise, and falls history. Conclusions: This research identified pre-frailty and frailty states in people aged in their 40s and 50s. Pre-frailty in body systems performance can be detected by a range of mutable measures, and interventions to prevent progression to frailty could be commenced from the fourth decade of life.

Original languageEnglish
Article number96
Number of pages13
JournalBMC Geriatrics
Volume20
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 6 Mar 2020

Bibliographical note

© The Author(s). 2020 Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons
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Keywords

  • Aged
  • Frailty
  • Healthy aging
  • Middle aged
  • Prefrailty

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