Predictors of early initiation of breastfeeding in Indonesia: A population-based cross-sectional survey

Maria Gayatri, Gouranga Lal Dasvarma

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19 Citations (Scopus)
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Introduction. Commencing breastfeeding within one hour of birth is defined as early initiation of breastfeeding (EIBF). Both the mother and child benefit from EIBF. This study aims to identify the predictors of EIBF among Indonesian women.  Methods. This paper analyses data from a weighted sample of 6,616 women collected at the Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS) 2017.The frequency of EIBF is measured by the proportion of children born in the two years preceding the survey who received breastmilk within one hour of birth. The analysis uses bivariate and multivariate logistic regression for complex sample designs, adjusted for confounders to examine the relationship of EIBF with women’s individual, household and community level characteristics. Results. Overall, 57% (95% CI: 54.9%-58.2%) of the children born in the two years preceding the survey had EIBF. Statistically significant (p<0.05) predictors of EIBF are women’s non-working status, second or higher order of the birth of the most recent child, average or large size of the most recent child at birth, poor status of the household and non-agricultural work of the woman’s husband; while statistically highly significant (p<0.01) predictors are skin-to-skin contact with the new-born (OR: 2.62; 95% CI: 2.28–3.00), Caesarean deliveries (OR: 0.47; 95% CI: 0.40–0.56), and skilled birth attendants (OR: 1.83; 95% CI: 1.65–2.08). Caesarean deliveries reduce the likelihood of EIBF by half compared to vaginal deliveries. Women’s age, education or rural-urban residence display no statistically significant relationship with EIBF. Conclusion.  Skin-to-skin contact, mode of delivery and type of birth attendance exert the strongest influence on EIBF in Indonesia in 2017. EIBF should be continuously promoted and supported particularly among mothers who do not have early skin-to-skin contact with their new-born, who have Caesarean deliveries and who have no skilled birth attendant.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0239446
Number of pages15
JournalPLoS One
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 24 Sept 2020

Bibliographical note

Copyright:©2020 Gayatri, Dasvarma. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


  • Breast feeding
  • Antenatal care
  • Indonesia
  • Labour and delivery
  • Child health


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