Predictors of missed infection control care: A tri-partite international study

Ian Blackman, Olga Riklikiene, Elena Gurková, Eileen Willis, Julie Henderson

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5 Citations (Scopus)


This study aimed to quantify types and frequencies of missed infection control care and to develop a theoretical model for estimating nurses’ consensus scores about this form of missed care.

A non-experimental research design using self-audit data was selected to collect information about the types and frequencies of missed infection control care from nurses employed in hospitals located in three different countries. Data collection commenced mid-year 2018.

A multivariate approach was used to apply the consensus scores of 1.911 internationally based nurses in the missed opportunities for maintaining infection control.

Thirteen variables exert direct effects on the nurses’ total scores underpinning missed infection control care. These include the methods used to prevent hospital-acquired infections, surveillance and hand hygiene practices. Significant nurses’ demographic factors also included their countries of origin, employment status, employer type, job retention intentions, work intensity, length of clinical experience and staff development attendance.

In magnitude of importance and having the largest effect on missed infection control care is missed care related to reducing hospital-acquired infections followed closely by surveillance. Missed infection control care can be quantified, and variances in its practices can be accounted by exploring the nurses’ differing demographic factors, including the nurses’ country of origin.

Variations in missed infection control care can be accounted for across three countries. While ward hygiene is underestimated by staff as a mechanism to minimize nosocomial infections, infection control surveillance remains the key to reducing hospital-acquired infections. The study's outcomes invite the use of an ongoing, whole-of-organization approach to infection control with scrutiny being needed for improved staff adherence particularly with hand hygiene.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)414-424
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Advanced Nursing
Issue number2
Early online date15 Jun 2021
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2022


  • hand hygiene
  • infection control
  • missed care
  • modelling
  • nurses


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