Aim: Children's intake of discretionary choices is excessive. This study aimed to develop a questionnaire measuring parents’ attitudes and beliefs towards limiting provision of discretionary choices, using the Health Action Process Approach model.
Methods: The questionnaire items were informed by the Health Action Process Approach model, which extends the Theory of Planned Behaviour to include both motivational (intention) and volitional (post-intention) factors that influence behaviour change. The questionnaire was piloted for content and face validity (expert panel, n = 5; parents, n = 4). Construct and predictive validity were examined in a sample of 178 parents of 4–7-year-old children who completed the questionnaire online. Statistical analyses included exploratory factor analyses, Cronbach's alpha and multiple linear regression.
Results: Pilot testing supported content and face validity. Principal component analyses identified constructs that aligned with the eight constructs of the Health Action Process Approach model. Internal consistencies were high for all subscales, in both the motivational (Cronbach's alpha 0.77–0.88) and volitional phase (Cronbach's alpha 0.85–0.92).
Conclusions: Initial results from validation tests support the development of a new questionnaire for measuring parent attitudes and beliefs regarding provision of discretionary choices to their 4–7-year-old children within the home. This new questionnaire can be used to gain greater insight into parents’ attitudes and beliefs that influence ability to limit discretionary choices provision to children. Further research to expand understanding of the questionnaires’ psychometric properties would be valuable, including confirmatory factor analysis and reproducibility.
- discretionary choice
- Health Action Process Approach