Preliminary Analysis of a Wireless and Wearable Electronic-Textile EASI-Based Electrocardiogram

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Background: With cardiovascular disease continuing to be the leading cause of death and the primary reason for hospitalization worldwide, there is an increased burden on healthcare facilities. Electronic-textile (e-textile)-based cardiac monitoring offers a viable option to allow cardiac rehabilitation programs to be conducted outside of the hospital.

Objectives: This study aimed to determine whether signals produced by an e-textile ECG monitor with textile electrodes in an EASI configuration are of sufficient quality to be used for cardiac monitoring. Specific objectives were to investigate the effect of the textile electrode characteristics, placement, and condition on signal quality, and finally to compare results to a reference ECG obtained from a current clinical standard the Holter monitor.

Methods: ECGs during different body movements (yawning, deep-breathing, coughing, sideways, and up movement) and activities of daily living (sitting, sitting/standing from a chair, and climbing stairs) were collected from a baseline standard of normal healthy adult male using a novel e-textile ECG and a reference Holter monitor. Each movement or activity was recorded for 5 min with 2-min intervals between each recording. Three different textile area electrodes (40, 60, and 70 mm2) and electrode thicknesses (3, 5, and 10 mm) were considered in the experiment. The effect of electrode placement within the EASI configuration was also studied. Different signal quality parameters, including signal to noise ratio, approximate entropy, baseline power signal quality index, and QRS duration and QT intervals, were used to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of the textile-based ECG monitor.

Results: The overall signal quality from the 70 mm2 textile electrodes was higher compared to the smaller area electrodes. Results showed that the ECGs from 3 and 5 mm textile electrodes showed good quality. Regarding location, placing the “A” and “I” electrodes on the left and right anterior axillary points, respectively, showed higher signal quality compared to the standard EASI electrode placement. Wet textile electrodes showed better signal quality compared to their dry counterparts. When compared to the traditional Holter monitor, there was no significant difference in signal quality, which indicated textile monitoring was as good as current clinical standards (non-inferior).

Conclusion: The e-textile EASI ECG monitor could be a viable option for real-time monitoring of cardiac activities. A clinical trial in a larger sample is recommended to validate the results in a clinical population.
Original languageEnglish
Article number806726
Number of pages14
JournalFrontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2020


  • ambulatory cardiac monitoring
  • electronic-textile electrodes
  • Holter monitoring
  • smart fabrics
  • wearable device
  • wearable sensors


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