Background: Antireflux surgery is effective for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux, but not all patients benefit equally from it. The challenge is to identify the patients who will ultimately benefit from antireflux surgery. The aim of this study was to identify preoperative factors that predict clinical outcome after antireflux surgery, with special interest in the influence of socioeconomic factors. Methods: Preoperative clinical and socioeconomic data from 1,650 patients who were to undergo laparoscopic fundoplication were collected prospectively. Clinical outcome measures (persistent heartburn, dysphagia, satisfaction) were assessed at short-term (1 year) and longer-term (≥3 years) follow-up. Results: At early follow-up, male gender (relative risk [RR] 1.091, p < 0.001) and the presence of a hiatus hernia (RR 1.065, p = 0.002) were independently associated with less heartburn. Male gender was also associated with higher overall satisfaction (RR 1.046, p = 0.034). An association was found between postoperative dysphagia and age (RR 0.988, p = 0.007) and the absence of a hiatus hernia (RR 0.767, p = 0.001). At longer-term follow-up, only male gender (RR 1.125, p < 0.001) was an independent prognostic factor for heartburn control. Male gender (RR 0.761, p = 0.001), the presence of a hiatus hernia (RR 0.823, p = 0.014), and cerebrovascular comorbidities (RR 1.306, p = 0.019) were independent prognosticators for dysphagia at longer-term follow-up. A hiatus hernia was the only factor associated with better overall satisfaction. Socioeconomic factors did not influence any clinical outcomes at short- and longer-term follow-up. Conclusion: Male gender and hiatus hernia are associated with a better clinical outcome following laparoscopic fundoplication, whereas socioeconomic status does not influence outcome.