Prevalence and associated factors of postpartum depression in Ethiopia. A systematic review and meta-analysis

Tadele Amare Zeleke, Wondale Getinet, Zemenu Tadesse Tessema, Kassahun Gebeyehu

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)
23 Downloads (Pure)



Globally, post-partum depression is a major public health problem and is associated with a harmful effect on the infant, child, and mothers' mental, physical, and social health. Although a few post-partum depression studies have been published, we still lack an accurate estimated pooled prevalence of national PPD and associated factors. 


This study aims to show the estimated pooled prevalence of PPD and associated factors in Ethiopia. 


We conduct the extensive search of articles as indicated in the guideline (PRISMA), reporting systematic review and meta-analysis. Databases like MEDLINE, PubMed, psych INFO, Web of Science, EMBASE, CINAHL, Scopus, and The Cochrane Library. All publications and grey literature were addressed by using MeSH terms and keywords. The pooled estimated effect of post-partum depression and associated factors was analyzed using the random effect model meta-analysis, and 95% CI was also considered. 

Protocol and registration 

PROSPERO 2020 CRD42020176769 Available from display_record.php?ID=CRD42020176769. 


A total of 11 studies with 7,582 participants were included in this meta-analysis. The estimated pooled prevalence of post-partum depression (PPD) was 22.08%, with a 95% CI (17.66%, 26.49). For factors associated with post-partum depression, a random effect size model was used during meta-analysis; unplanned pregnancy [(OR = 2.84; 95% CI (2.04, 3.97)], domestic violence [OR = 3.14; 95% CI (2.59, 3.80)], and poor social support [OR = 3.57;95% CI (2.29,5.54) were positively associated factors with post-partum depression. 

Conclusion and recommendation 

The estimated pooled prevalence of post-partum depression was high in Ethiopia. Unplanned pregnancy, poor social support, and domestic violence were factors affecting PPD. Therefore, the Ethiopian policymakers and health personnel better give more emphasis to mothers who had a history of unplanned pregnancy, domestic violence, and poor social support.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0247005
Number of pages16
JournalPLoS One
Publication statusPublished - 19 Feb 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Depression
  • Clinical depression
  • Post-partum depression
  • Postnatal depression


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