Prevalence of wind farm amplitude modulation at long-range residential locations

Kristy L. Hansen, Phuc Nguyen, Branko Zajamšek, Peter G. Catcheside, Colin H. Hansen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Citations (Scopus)


The presence of amplitude modulation (AM) in wind farm noise has been shown to result in increased annoyance. Therefore, it is important to determine how often this characteristic is present at residential locations near a wind farm. This study investigates the prevalence and characteristics of wind farm AM at 9 different residences located near a South Australian wind farm that has been the subject of complaints from local residents. It is shown that an audible indoor low-frequency tone was amplitude modulated at the blade-pass frequency for 20% of the time up to a distance of 2.4 km. The audible AM occurred for a similar percentage of time between wind farm percentage power capacities of 40 and 85%, indicating that it is important that AM analysis is not restricted to high power output conditions only. Although the number of AM events is shown to reduce with distance, audible indoor AM still occurred for 16% of the time at a distance of 3.5 km. At distances of 7.6 and 8.8 km, audible AM was only detected on one occasion. At night-time, audible AM occurred indoors at residences located as far as 3.5 km from the wind farm for up to 22% of the time.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)136-149
Number of pages14
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2019


  • Amplitude modulation
  • Wind farm noise
  • Low-frequency noise
  • Tonal noise


Dive into the research topics of 'Prevalence of wind farm amplitude modulation at long-range residential locations'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this