New approaches to stratify multiple myeloma patients based on prognosis and therapeutic decision-making, or prediction, are needed since patients are currently managed in a similar manner regardless of individual risk factors or disease characteristics. However, despite new and improved biomarkers for determining the prognosis of patients, there is currently insufficient information to utilise biomarkers to intensify, reduce or altogether change treatment, nor to target patient-specific biology in a so-called predictive manner. The ever-increasing number and complexity of drug classes to treat multiple myeloma have improved response rates and so clinically useful biomarkers will need to be relevant in the era of such novel therapies. Therefore, the field of multiple myeloma biomarker development is rapidly progressing, spurred on by new technologies and therapeutic approaches, and underpinned by a deeper understanding of tumour biology with individualised patient management the goal. In this review, we describe the main biomarker categories in multiple myeloma and relate these to diagnostic, prognostic and predictive applications. [Figure not available: see fulltext.].
- Biomarker Developments
- Multiple myeloma