Properties of Wine Polymeric Pigments Formed from Anthocyanin and Tannins Differing in Size Distribution and Subunit Composition

Keren Bindon, Stella Kassara, Yoji Hayasaka, Alex Schulkin, Paul Smith

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    27 Citations (Scopus)


    To explore the effect of tannin composition on pigment formation, model ferments of purified 3-Omonoglucoside anthocyanins (ACN) were conducted either alone or in the presence of two different tannins. Tannins were isolated from grape seeds (Sd) or skins (Sk) following exhaustive extraction in 70% v/v acetone. The Sd and Sk tannin fractions had a mean degree of polymerization of 5.2 and 25.6, respectively. The Sd fraction was highly galloylated, at 22%, but galloylation was <2% in the Sk fraction. The Sk fraction was distinguished by a high proportion of prodelphinidin, at 58%. After a 6 month aging period, polymeric pigments were quantified and their color properties determined following isolation by solid-phase extraction. Wine color and polymeric pigment were highest in the treatment containing ACN+Sd and similar in the ACN+Sk and ACN treatments. The same trend between treatments was observed for total and polymeric nonbleachable pigments. Only minor changes in tannin subunit composition were found following ACN incorporation, but the size distribution of polymeric pigments determined by gel permeation chromatography decreased, in particular for the ACN+Sk treatment. Color incorporation in the higher molecular mass range was lower for ACN+Sk wines than for ACN+Sd wines. Compositional differences between the two tannin fractions may therefore limit the incorporation of ACNs in the colored form. The results suggest that in the ACN+Sk and ACN treatments, the formation of lower molecular mass oligomeric pigments was favored. In polymeric pigments derived from ACNs, the presence of ethyl- and vinyl-linked ACNs to the level of trimers was identified using mass spectrometry.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)11582-11593
    Number of pages12
    JournalJournal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
    Issue number47
    Publication statusPublished - 26 Nov 2014


    • Anthocyanin
    • Bisulfite
    • Color
    • Ethyl linkage
    • Molecular mass
    • Pigment
    • Proanthocyanidin
    • Tannin
    • Vinyl linkage
    • Wine


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