Proposed diagnostic criteria for compulsive buying-shopping disorder: A Delphi expert consensus study

Astrid Müller, Nora M. Laskowski, Patrick Trotzke, Kathina Ali, Daniel B. Fassnacht, Martina de Zwaan, Matthias Brand, Michael Häder, Michael Kyrios

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19 Citations (Scopus)
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Background and aims
Consensus in acknowledging compulsive buying-shopping disorder (CBSD) as a distinct diagnosis has been lacking. Before research in this area can be advanced, it is necessary to establish diagnostic criteria in order to facilitate field trials.
The study consisted of the following phases: (1) operationalization of a broad range of potential diagnostic criteria for CBSD, (2) two iterative rounds of data collection using the Delphi method, where consensus of potential diagnostic criteria for CBSD was reached by an international expert panel, and (3) interpretation of findings taking into account the degree of certainty amongst experts regarding their responses.
With respect to diagnostic criteria, there was clear expert consensus about inclusion of the persistent and recurrent experience of (a) intrusive and/or irresistible urges and/or impulses and/or cravings and/or preoccupations for buying/shopping; (b) diminished control over buying/shopping; (c) excessive purchasing of items without utilizing them for their intended purposes, (d) use of buying-shopping to regulate internal states; (e) negative consequences and impairment in important areas of functioning due to buying/shopping; (f) emotional and cognitive symptoms upon cessation of excessive buying/shopping; and (g) maintenance or escalation of dysfunctional buying/shopping behaviors despite negative consequences. Furthermore, support was found for a specifier related to the presence of excessive hoarding of purchased items.
The proposed diagnostic criteria can be used as the basis for the development of diagnostic interviews and measures of CBSD severity.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)208-222
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Behavioral Addictions
Issue number2
Early online date13 Apr 2021
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2021


  • compulsive buying-shop ping disorder
  • compulsive buying
  • diagnostic criteria
  • Delphi study
  • behavioral addiction
  • impulse control disorder
  • Impulse control disorder
  • Compulsive buying
  • Diagnostic criteria
  • Compulsive buying-shopping disorder
  • Behavioral addiction


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