Protective and risk factors associated with adolescent sleep: Findings from Australia, Canada and The Netherlands

Kate Bartel, Paul Williamson, Annette van Maanen, Jamie Cassoff, Anne Marie Meijer, Frans Oort, Bärbel Knäuper, Reut Gruber, Michael Gradisar

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    34 Citations (Scopus)


    Background Sleep is vital for adolescent functioning. Those with optimal sleep duration have shown improved capacity to learn and decreased rate of motor vehicle accidents. This study explored the influence of numerous protective and risk factors on adolescents' school night sleep (bedtime, sleep latency, total sleep time) simultaneously to assess the importance of each one and compare within three countries. Method Online survey data were collected from Australia, Canada, and The Netherlands. Overall, 325 (137 male), 193 (28 male), and 150 (55 male) contributed to data from Australia, Canada, and The Netherlands, respectively (age range 12–19 years). Results Regression analyses showed mixed results, when comparing protective and risk factors for sleep parameters within different countries, with combined behavioural factors contributing to small to large shared portions of variance in each regression (9–50%). One consistent finding between countries was found, with increased pre-sleep cognitive emotional sleep hygiene related to decreased sleep latency (beta = −0.25 to −0.33, p < 0.05). Technology use (mobile phone/Internet stop time) was associated with later bedtime, or less total sleep, with the strength of association varying between device and country. Conclusion Results indicate that when designing interventions for adolescent sleep, multiple lifestyle factors need to be considered, whereas country of residence may play a lesser role.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)97-103
    Number of pages7
    JournalSleep Medicine
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2016


    • Adolescent
    • Bedtime
    • Day length
    • Protective and risk factors
    • Sleep
    • Sleep latency


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