The aim of this study was to demonstrate the presence of calmodulin-stimulated protein kinase II, protein kinase C, and cyclic AMP-stimulated protein kinase in isolated myenteric ganglia and to characterize the major ganglia phosphoproteins using biochemical and immunochemical techniques. Ganglia from the small intestine of guinea-pigs were isolated, disrupted by sonication in Triton X-100, and phosphorylated. The phosphoprotein patterns obtained were compared with those of synaptosomes from guinea-pig and rat cerebral cortex. Myenteric ganglia were as rich in protein kinase C and cyclic AMP-stimulated protein kinase as brain tissue, but the level of calmodulin-stimulated protein kinase II was relatively lower. The α subunit of calmodulin-stimulated protein kinase II was detected by immunoblotting and the β subunit by autophosphorylation. The ratio of β to α subunit was considerably higher in ganglia than in brain and ganglia β subunit had a lower apparent molecular weight than the brain enzyme. A number of neuronal phosphoproteins were found in ganglia including the 87,000 mol. wt phosphoprotein, synapsins 1a and 1b, and proteins IIIa and IIIb. A phosphoprotein of 48,000 mol. wt had many of the characteristics of the B-50 protein but was not the same. In addition, a number of other phosphoproteins not previously identified in neurons were found in ganglia including those with apparent molecular weights of 60,000 and 58,000 that were the major calmodulin kinase substrates. The guinea-pig enteric nervous system has been extensively studied but, unlike other parts of the mammalian nervous system, little is known about the intracellular mechanisms underlying its functions. A technique for isolating myenteric ganglia is now available and we have used this preparation to characterize the major protein kinases and phosphoproteins present in this tissue. The results obtained will allow the phosphorylation of the various proteins to be investigated after physiological or pharmacological manipulation of myenteric ganglia in situ and in vivo.