Public sector criminological research has its roots in early attempts to compile population statistics that developed in nineteenth century Europe. Criminologists have found employment in a wide range of government agencies. The principal workplaces are dedicated criminological research organizations, such as the Australian Institute of Criminology; criminal justice entities; and in departments with specific interests in crime-related issues. One of the enduring challenges faced by dedicated public sector criminological research institutes is the desire and ability of governments to maintain adequate funding - particularly if the research undertaken is critical of government policy. The demands of government often require public sector criminological research to be conducted on new and developing crime problems. Despite these constraints, there is much work that public sector criminologists can do to inform both policy and the community as to the nature, extent, and solutions to contemporary crime problems.