Rapid, inexpensive, iterative prototyping and user testing, using spatial augmented reality

Sandy Walker

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


    This paper describes the use of Spatial Augmented Reality (SAR) within the design process, for the development and user testing of a train vestibule. Spatial Augmented Reality allows the appearance of physical objects to be transformed using projected two-dimensional textures and three-dimensional images. Computer-controlled light projection systems have become cost effective for both personal and commercial use. A SAR prototyping projection system used projectors in order to simulate the visual appearance of hi-fidelity surfaces on a low-fidelity fabricated train interior. User tracking with the use of image capture technology was employed to facilitate real-time user interactions with the interior space of a train carriage. This design approach can be used to quickly and inexpensively create and evaluate multiple design iterations. Previously, evaluating physical train prototypes involved the construction of a hifidelity physical interior or scale model at considerable cost and with limited flexibility. A user study was undertaken in order to examine this method of prototyping, to validate the use of spatial augmented reality as a tool for rapid iterative large scale prototyping.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)73-80
    Number of pages8
    JournalDesign Principles and Practices
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2015


    • Design education
    • Industrial design
    • Product development process
    • Prototype
    • Spatial augmented reality
    • User testing


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