Re-examining dissociations between remembering and knowing: Binary judgments vs. independent ratings

Aaron A. Brown, Glen Bodner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Citations (Scopus)


When participants must classify their recognition experiences as remembering or knowing, variables often have dissociative effects on the two judgments. In contrast, when participants independently rate recollection and familiarity only parallel effects have been reported. To investigate this discrepancy we compared the effects of masked priming at test (Experiment 1), and levels-of-processing (LOP) at study (Experiment 2), on recollection and familiarity using both binary judgment and independent-rating methods. With binary judgments, repetition priming selectively increased familiarity, and deeper LOP increased recollection but decreased familiarity. Independent ratings were positively correlated, and priming and LOP both increased recollection and familiarity. This pattern occurred even when each rating was made by a separate group to prevent rating cross-contamination. Thus, how recognition experiences are measured can influence whether dissociations between recollection and familiarity are found. Our findings have implications for the measurement of recognition experiences and for current accounts of recognition memory.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)98-108
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Memory and Language
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2011


  • Dissociations
  • Familiarity
  • Independent ratings
  • Recognition memory
  • Recollection
  • Remember/know judgments


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