Recent Investigations on Neurotransmitters' Role in Acute White Matter Injury of Perinatal Glia and Pharmacotherapies--Glia Dynamics in Stem Cell Therapy.

Narasimha M. Beeraka, P. R.Hemanth Vikram, M. V. Greeshma, Chinnappa A. Uthaiah, Tahani Huria, Junqi Liu, Pramod Kumar, Vladimir N. Nikolenko, Kirill V. Bulygin, Mikhail Y. Sinelnikov, Olga Sukocheva, Ruitai Fan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) and cerebral palsy are two neurological disease conditions developed from the premyelinated white matter ischemic injury (WMI). The significant pathophysiology of these diseases is accompanied by the cognitive deficits due to the loss of function of glial cells and axons. White matter makes up 50% of the brain volume consisting of myelinated and non-myelinated axons, glia, blood vessels, optic nerves, and corpus callosum. Studies over the years have delineated the susceptibility of white matter towards ischemic injury especially during pregnancy (prenatal, perinatal) or immediately after child birth (postnatal). Impairment in membrane depolarization of neurons and glial cells by ischemia-invoked excitotoxicity is mediated through the overactivation of NMDA receptors or non-NMDA receptors by excessive glutamate influx, calcium, or ROS overload and has been some of the well-studied molecular mechanisms conducive to the injury of white matter. Expression of glutamate receptors (GluR) and transporters (GLT1, EACC1, and GST) has significant influence in glial and axonal-mediated injury of premyelinated white matter during PVL and cerebral palsy. Predominantly, the central premyelinated axons express extensive levels of functional NMDA GluR receptors to confer ischemic injury to premyelinated white matter which in turn invoke defects in neural plasticity. Several underlying molecular mechanisms are yet to be unraveled to delineate the complete pathophysiology of these prenatal neurological diseases for developing the novel therapeutic modalities to mitigate pathophysiology and premature mortality of newborn babies. In this review, we have substantially discussed the above multiple pathophysiological aspects of white matter injury along with glial dynamics, and the pharmacotherapies including recent insights into the application of MSCs as therapeutic modality in treating white matter injury.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2009-2026
Number of pages18
JournalMOLECULAR NEUROBIOLOGY
Volume59
Issue number4
Early online date18 Jan 2022
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2022

Keywords

  • Glial dynamics
  • Glutamate transporters
  • Ischemic Injury
  • NMDA receptors (NMDAR)
  • Neurodegeneration
  • PVL
  • Stem cell therapy

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