Recent updates on epigenetic biomarkers for prostate cancer.

Karen Chiam, Tanya Day, Tina Bianco-Miotto

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

    Abstract

    Epigenetics refers to DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNAs and these epigenetic modifications are extensively investigated as potential biomarkers for cancer. Characterizing genome wide epigenetic changes involved in prostate cancer development and progression will not only identify potential novel therapeutic targets, since some epigenetic modifications are reversible, but also highlight which epigenetic changes can be used as prostate cancer biomarkers. Epigenetic changes are relatively stable and easy to measure in peripheral samples like blood and urine, further highlighting their importance as powerful tools for assessing patient diagnosis and prognosis. In this review, we outline how epigenetic biomarkers have been used for diagnosis, prognosis and for monitoring therapeutic response in prostate cancer. We also review how epigenetic biomarkers may be more sensitive and specific than current prostate cancer serum markers and the possibility that combining different epigenetic modifications may further enhance the diagnostic and prognostic ability of these epigenetic biomarkers. As epigenome wide studies continue to be performed in larger patient cohorts, we will soon identify the epigenetic modifications involved in prostate tumorigenesis with the resultant identification of new therapeutic targets and robust prostate cancer biomarkers.

    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationEpigenetics and Cancer
    PublisherSpringer
    Pages129-150
    Number of pages22
    Edition1st
    ISBN (Electronic)9789400766129
    ISBN (Print)9400766114, 9789400766112
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2013

    Keywords

    • Diagnostic biomarkers
    • DNA methylation
    • Histone modifications
    • MicroRNA
    • Prostate cancer

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