Regulation of sympathetic trophic factors in smooth muscle

R. A. Rush, I. K. Abrahamson, D. A. Belford, S. Y. Murdoch, P. A. Wilson

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    10 Citations (Scopus)


    The level and nature of trophic activity present in the chicken expansor secundariorum muscle has been shown to he altered by denervation. This muscle receives a dense, sympathetic innervation and contains high concentrations of trophic factors, which were found to be immunologically and functionally distinct from mouse Nerve Growth Factor. In young birds, denervation increased the number of neurons which could be supported by muscle extract. This difference was apparent with regard to E8 to E16 sympathetic neurons. Innervated but not denervated extract was additive with NGF in promoting neurite outgrowth. In contrast, when extracts of denervated and innervated muscle from mature birds were examined, no difference was seen in the number of neurons supported by each extract. However when the denervated and innervated extracts from mature birds were combined more neurons were supported than by a saturating dose of either extract alone. Furthermore, muscle from mature birds responded to denervation only between 2 and 9 days, whereas in young birds the effect was apparent for at least 3 weeks. Analysis of intact, control muscles during the tirst 8 weeks posthatch demonstrated that the number of neurons that could be supported by the individual extracts varied with the age of the bird. It is concluded that denervation does not in all instances lead to an increase in trophic activity, but does produce a change in the nature of the activity present, such that a different neuronal subpopulation may be supported. In addition, the response of the muscle depends on the age of the birds at the time of denervation. and this may be due to an alteration in the type of activity present in the muscle during the first few weeks after hatch.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)51-59
    Number of pages9
    JournalInternational Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
    Issue number1
    Publication statusPublished - 1986


    • Avian
    • Denervation
    • Development
    • Expansor secundariorum
    • Nerve Growth Factor
    • Neuronal culture


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