Relationships between outdoor time, physical activity, sedentary time, and body mass index in children: A 12-country study

Richard Larouche, Tiago V. Barreira, Gang Hu, José António Maia, Olga Sarmiento, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Emily F. Mire, Jean Philippe Chaput, Estelle Victoria Lambert, Tim Olds, Martyn Standage, Kevin Belanger, Mikael Fogelholm, Carol Ann Maher, Vincent Ochieng Onywera, Catrine E. Tudor- Locke, Mark S. Tremblay, Timothy S. Church, Denise G. Lambert, Stephanie T. BroylesBen P. Butitta, Catherine M. Champagne, Shannon H. Cocreham, Kara N. Dentro, Katy Drazba, Deirdre Deirdre M. Harrington, William D. Johnson, Dione Milauskas, Allison Tohme, Ruben Q. Rodarte, Bobby Amoroso, John Luopa, Rebecca H. Neiberg, Scott Rushing, Tim Olds, Lucy Kate Lewis, Katia Ferrar, Effie Georgiadis, Rebecca Megan Stanley, Victor Keihan Matsudo, Sandra Mahecha Matsudo, Timóteo Leandro Araújo, Luís Carlos De Oliveira, Leandro Rezende, Luis Fabiano, Diogo Bezerra, Gerson Luis Ferrari, Priscilla Bélanger, Michael Marc Borghese, Charles Boyer, Allana G.W. LeBlanc, Claire E. Francis, Geneviève Leduc, Pei Zhao, Gang Hu, Chengming Diao, Wei Li, Weiqin Li, Enquing qing Liu, Gongshu Liu, Hongyan Liu, Jian Ma, Yijuan Qiao, Huiguang Tian, Yue Wang, Tao Zhang, Fuxia Zhang, Julio Acosta, Yalta Alvira, María Paula Díaz, Rocio Gámez, Maria Paula Garcia, Luis Guillermo Gómez, Lisseth Heras González, Silvia Alejandra González, Carlos Grijalba, Leidys Gutiérrez, David Leal, Nicolás Lemus, Etelvina Mahecha, Maria Paula Mahecha, Rosalba Mahecha, Andrea Ramírez Varela, Paola Ríos, Andres Suarez, Camilo A. Triana, Elli Hovi, Jemina Kivelä, Sari M. Räsänen, Sanna Roito, Taru Saloheimo, Leena Valta, Anura Vishwanath Kurpad, Rebecca Kuriyan, Deepa P. Lokesh, Michelle Stephanie D'Almeida, R. Annie Mattilda, Lygia F.M. Correa, D. Vijay, Lucy Joy Wachira, Stella Kagwiria Muthuri, Alessandra Da Silva Borges, Sofia Oliveira Cachada, Raquel Nichele De Chaves, Thayse Natacha Gomes, Sara Isabel Pereira, Daniel Monteiro De Vilhena E Santos, Fernanda Karina Dos Santos, Pedro Gil Da Silva, Michele Caroline De Souza, Vicki E. Lambert, Matthew April, Monika Uys, Nirmala Naidoo, Nandi Synyanya, Madelaine T. Carstens, Sean P. Cumming, Clemens Drenowatz, Lydia G. Emm, Fiona Bridget Gillison, Julia Kirstey Zakrzewski, Ashley Braud, Sheletta G. Donatto, Corbin Lemon, Ana Jackson, Ashunti Pearson, Gina Pennington, Daniel Ragus, Ryan C. Roubion, John M. Schuna, Derek Wiltz, Alan Mark Batterham, Jacqueline Kerr, Michael W. Pratt, Angelo Pietrobelli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Purpose: This study investigated the relationship between outdoor time and physical activity (PA), sedentary time (SED), and body mass index z scores among children from 12 lower-middle-income, upper-middle-income, and high-income countries. Methods: In total, 6478 children (54.4% girls) aged 9-11 years participated. Outdoor time was self-reported, PA and SED were assessed with ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometers, and height and weight were measured. Data on parental education, neighborhood collective efficacy, and accessibility to neighborhood recreation facilities were collected from parent questionnaires. Country latitude and climate statistics were collected through national weather data sources. Gender-stratified multilevel models with parental education, climate, and neighborhood variables as covariates were used to examine the relationship between outdoor time, accelerometry measures, and body mass index z scores. Results: Each additional hour per day spent outdoors was associated with higher moderate-to vigorous-intensity PA (boys: +2.8 min/d; girls: +1.4 min/d), higher light-intensity PA (boys: +2.0 min/d; girls: +2.3 min/d), and lower SED (boys: -6.3 min/d; girls: -5.1 min/d). Effect sizes were generally weaker in lower-middle-income countries. Outdoor time was not associated with body mass index z scores. Conclusions: Outdoor time was associated with higher PA and lower SED independent of climate, parental education, and neighborhood variables, but effect sizes were small. However, more research is needed in low-and middle-income countries.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)118-129
Number of pages12
JournalPediatric Exercise Science
Volume31
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Keywords

  • exercise
  • epidemiology
  • health promotion
  • motor behavior

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    Larouche, R., Barreira, T. V., Hu, G., Maia, J. A., Sarmiento, O., Katzmarzyk, P. T., Mire, E. F., Chaput, J. P., Lambert, E. V., Olds, T., Standage, M., Belanger, K., Fogelholm, M., Maher, C. A., Onywera, V. O., Tudor- Locke, C. E., Tremblay, M. S., Church, T. S., Lambert, D. G., ... Pietrobelli, A. (2019). Relationships between outdoor time, physical activity, sedentary time, and body mass index in children: A 12-country study. Pediatric Exercise Science, 31(1), 118-129. https://doi.org/10.1123/pes.2018-0055