Reliability of change-of-direction economy in soccer players

Filippo Dolci, Andrew E. Kilding, Tania Spiteri, Paola Chivers, Ben Piggott, Andrew Maiorana, Nicolas H. Hart

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: To evaluate the reliability of new change-of-direction-economy tests (assessing energetic efficiency when performing continuous shuttle runs) compared with common running-economy tests in soccer players Methods: Sixteen subelite, male soccer players were recruited to perform a testing battery involving running economy (RE), 10-m shuttle-running economy (SRE10), and 20-m shuttle-running economy (SRE20) at 8.4 km·h−1 mean speed on 2 different days within 48 hours. SRE10 and SRE20 consisted of continuous shuttle runs interspersed with 180° directional changes. During the RE, SRE20, and SRE10 tests, respiratory exchange ratio and oxygen uptake were collected and used to calculate the movement-economy values over any running condition as oxygen cost and energetic cost. The secondary variables (carbon dioxide production, heart rate, minute ventilation, and blood lactate) were also monitored during all tests. Results: Depending on expression (oxygen cost or energetic cost), reliability was established for RE (CV: 5.5%-5.8%; ICC =.77-.88), SRE10 (CV: 3.5%-3.8%; ICC =.78-.96), and SRE20 (CV: 3.5%-3.8%; ICC =.66-.94). All secondary physiological variables reported good reliability (CV < 10%), except for blood lactate (CV < 35.8). The RE, SRE10, and SRE20 tests show good reliability in soccer players, whereas blood lactate has the highest variability among physiological variables during the economy tests. Conclusion: The assessment of change-of-direction economy through performing 20- and 10-m shuttle runs is reliable and can be applied to evaluate soccer players' energetic movement efficiency under more soccer-specific running conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)280-286
Number of pages7
JournalInternational Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2021
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors wish to acknowledge the footballers for their participation in this research. The authors have no conflicts of interest or competing interests to declare. This research received no external funding. F.D. is supported by an Australian Government Research Training Program Scholarship. N.H.H. is supported by a Cancer Council Western Australia Postdoctoral Research Fellowship.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Human Kinetics, Inc.


  • Aerobic cost
  • Energetic cost
  • Football
  • Movement efficiency
  • Shuttle runs


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