Aim: This paper describes the incidence and outcomes of childhood renal malignancies in Australia using national population-based data from the Australian Childhood Cancer Registry. Methods: De-identified data for children (0–14 years) diagnosed with renal malignancies from 1983 to 2015 inclusive were extracted. Cause-specific (CSS) and event-free survival up to 20 years from diagnosis were estimated using the cohort method. Adjusted excess mortality hazard ratios were calculated using a multivariable flexible parametric survival model. Details relating to second primary malignancies (SPMs) were also examined. Results: There were 1046 children diagnosed with renal malignancies in Australia between 1983 and 2015 (91% nephroblastoma), generating an annual age-standardised incidence rate of 8 per million children, which remained constant over the study period. CSS was 89% (95% confidence interval = 87–91%) and 88% (86–90%) at 5 and 20 years, respectively, and 5-year event-free survival was 82% (80–84%). Five-year CSS did not change over the study period and was highest for nephroblastoma (91%). Of the 94% of patients achieving remission, 15% relapsed and subsequent 5-year CSS was 49% (40%–58%). Eleven children were diagnosed with SPM (standardised incidence ratio = 2.9, 95% confidence interval = 1.6–5.3, P < 0.001), and five of them (45%) died within 5 years of the second diagnosis. Conclusions: Children treated for renal malignancies in Australia have excellent long-term survival, which is unchanged since 1983. SPMs are uncommon following treatment for childhood renal cancer but carry a poor prognosis. Relapse carries a similarly poor prognosis to SPM but is more common. These data are comparable to registry outcomes in similarly developed nations.
- kidney neoplasm
- neoplasms, second primary