Restoration: 'Garden of Eden' unrealistic

Martin F. Breed, Andrew J. Lowe, Peter E. Mortimer

Research output: Contribution to journalLetterpeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


We consider the proposed use of a 'pre-degradation' state as a reference baseline for damaged ecosystems to be unrealistic (J. Kotiaho et al. Nature 532, 37; 2016). Instead of this 'Garden of Eden' baseline, we argue that restoration should respond to current drivers of biodiversity loss and decline in ecosystem function and services.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)469
Number of pages1
Publication statusPublished - 25 May 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • pre-degradation
  • damaged ecosystems
  • native species
  • invasive species

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