Background: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is recalcitrant to treatment and new approaches to therapy are needed. Reduced expression of miR-15/16 in a range of cancer types has suggested a tumour suppressor function for these microRNAs, and re-expression has been shown to inhibit tumour cell proliferation. The miR-15/16 status in MPM is largely unknown. Materials and methods: MicroRNA expression was analysed by TaqMan-based RT-qPCR in MPM tumour specimens and cell lines. MicroRNA expression was restored in vitro using microRNA mimics, and effects on proliferation, drug sensitivity and target gene expression were assessed. Xenograft-bearing mice were treated with miR-16 mimic packaged in minicells targeted with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-specific antibodies. Results: Expression of the miR-15 family was consistently downregulated in MPM tumour specimens and cell lines. A decrease of 4-to 22-fold was found when tumour specimens were compared with normal pleura. When MPM cell lines were compared with the normal mesothelial cell line MeT-5A, the downregulation of miR-15/16 was 2-to 10-fold. Using synthetic mimics to restore miR-15/16 expression led to growth inhibition in MPM cell lines but not in MeT-5A cells. Growth inhibition caused by miR-16 correlated with downregulation of target genes including Bcl-2 and CCND1, and miR-16 re-expression sensitised MPM cells to pemetrexed and gemcitabine. In xenograft-bearing nude mice, intravenous administration of miR-16 mimics packaged in minicells led to consistent and dose-dependent inhibition of MPM tumour growth. Conclusions: The miR-15/16 family is downregulated and has tumour suppressor function in MPM. Restoring miR-16 expression represents a novel therapeutic approach for MPM.