Fluoroscopy is a commonly used tool in hand surgery. There have been recent advances in the technology and its clinical utilisation. Indications include assessment of joint and fracture fixation and stability, particularly when combined with minimally invasive techniques. Recent developments include surgeon operated mini C-arm image intensifiers. We present a review of the clinical utilisation of fluoroscopy in hand surgery including recent developments, Australian legislation, safety issues, strategies to reduce radiation exposure and clinical examples for imaging distal radius and scaphoid fracture fixation.