Rivaroxaban with or without aspirin in patients with stable peripheral or carotid artery disease: an international, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

Sonia S. Anand, Jackie Bosch, John W. Eikelboom, Stuart J. Connolly, Rafael Diaz, Peter Widimsky, Victor Aboyans, Marco Alings, Ajay K. Kakkar, Katalin Keltai, Aldo P. Maggioni, Basil S. Lewis, Stefan Störk, Jun Zhu, Patricio Lopez-Jaramillo, Martin O'Donnell, Patrick J. Commerford, Dragos Vinereanu, Nana Pogosova, Lars RydenKeith A.A. Fox, Deepak L. Bhatt, Frank Misselwitz, John D. Varigos, Thomas Vanassche, Alvaro A. Avezum, Edmond Chen, Kelley Branch, Darryl P. Leong, Shrikant I. Bangdiwala, Robert G. Hart, Salim Yusuf, COMPASS Investigators, JORGELINA SALA, LUIS CARTASEGNA, MARISA VICO, MIGUEL ANGEL HOMINAL, EDUARDO HASBANI, ALBERTO CACCAVO, CESAR ZAIDMAN, DANIEL VOGEL, ADRIAN HRABAR, PABLO OMAR SCHYGIEL, CARLOS CUNEO, HUGO LUQUEZ, IGNACIO J. MACKINNON, RODOLFO ANDRES AHUAD GUERRERO, JUAN PABLO COSTABEL, INES PALMIRA BARTOLACCI, OSCAR MONTANA, MARIA BARBIERI, OSCAR GOMEZ VILAMAJO, RUBEN OMAR GARCIA DURAN, LILIA BEATRIZ SCHIAVI, MARCELO GARRIDO, ADRIAN INGARAMO, ANSELMO PAULINO BORDONAVA, MARIA JOSE PELAGAGGE, LEONARDO NOVARETTO, JUAN PABLO ALBISU DI GENNERO, LUZ MARIA IBANEZ SAGGIA, MOIRA ALVAREZ, NESTOR ALEJANDRO VITA, STELLA MARIS MACIN, RICARDO DARIO DRAN, MARCELO CARDONA, LUIS GUZMAN, RODOLFO JUAN SARJANOVICH, JESUS CUADRADO, SEBASTIAN NANI, MARCOS RAUL LITVAK BRUNO, CAROLINA CHACON, LAURA ELENA MAFFEI, DIEGO GRINFELD, NATALIA VENSENTINI, CLAUDIO RODOLFO MAJUL, HECTOR LUCAS LUCIARDI, PATRICIA DEL CARMEN GONZALEZ COLASO, FREDY ANTONI FERRE PACORA, PAUL VAN DEN HEUVEL, PETER VERHAMME, BAVO ECTOR, PHILIPPE DEBONNAIRE, PHILIPPE VAN DE BORNE, JEAN LEROY, HERMAN SCHROE, PASCAL VRANCKX, IVAN ELEGEERT, ETIENNE HOFFER, KARL DUJARDIN, CLARISSE INDIO DO BRASIL, DALTON PRECOMA, JOSE ANTONIO ABRANTES, EULER MANENTI, GILMAR REIS, JOSE SARAIVA, LILIA MAIA, MAURO HERNANDES, PAULO ROSSI, FABIO ROSSI DOS SANTOS, SERGIO LUIZ ZIMMERMANN, RAFAEL RECH, EDUARDO ABIB, PAULO LEAES, ROBERTO BOTELHO, OSCAR DUTRA, WEIMAR SOUZA, MARIA BRAILE, NILO IZUKAWA, JOSE CARLOS NICOLAU, LUIZ FERNANDO TANAJURA, CARLOS VICENTE SERRANO JUNIOR, CESAR MINELLI, LUIZ ANTONIO NASI, LIVIA OLIVEIRA, MARCELO JOSE DE CARVALHO CANTARELLI, RICHARD TYTUS, SHEKHAR PANDEY, EVA LONN, JAMES CHA, SAUL VIZEL, MOHAN BABAPULLE, ANDRE LAMY, KEVIN SAUNDERS, JOSEPH BERLINGIERI, BOB B. KIAII, RAKESH BHARGAVA, PRAVINSAGAR MEHTA, LAURIE HILL, DAVID FELL, ANDY LAM, FAISAL AL-QOOFI, CRAIG BROWN, ROBERT PETRELLA, JOSEPH A. RICCI, ANTHONY GLANZ, NICOLAS NOISEUX, KEVIN BAINEY, FATIMA MERALI, MICHAEL HEFFERNAN, ANTHONY DELLA SIEGA, GILLES R. DAGENAIS, FRANCOIS DAGENAIS, STEEVE BRULOTTE, MICHEL NGUYEN, MICHAEL HARTLEIB, RANDOLPH GUZMAN, RONALD BOURGEOIS, DENNIS RUPKA, YAARIV KHAYKIN, GILBERT GOSSELIN, THAO HUYNH, CLAUDE PILON, JEAN CAMPEAU, FRANCIS PICHETTE, ARIEL DIAZ, JAMES JOHNSTON, PRAVIN SHUKLE, GREGORY HIRSCH, PAUL RHEAULT, WLODZIMIERZ CZARNECKI, ANNIE ROY, SHAH NAWAZ, STEPHEN FREMES, DINKAR SHUKLA, GABRIEL JANO, JORGE LEONARDO COBOS, RAMON CORBALAN, MARCELO MEDINA, LEONARDO NAHUELPAN, CARLOS RAFFO, LUIS PEREZ, SERGIO POTTHOFF, BENJAMIN STOCKINS, PABLO SEPULVEDA, CHRISTIAN PINCETTI, MARGARITA VEJAR, HONGYAN TIAN, XUESI WU, YUANNAN KE, KAIYING JIA, PENGFEI YIN, ZHAOHUI WANG, LITIAN YU, SHULIN WU, ZONGQUI WU, SHAO WEN LIU, XIAO JUAN BAI, YANG ZHENG, PING YANG, YUN MEI YANG, JIWEI ZHANG, JUNBO GE, XIAO PING CHEN, JUNXIA LI, TAO HONG HU, RUIYAN ZHANG, ZHE ZHENG, XIN CHEN, LIANG TAO, JIANPING LI, WEIJIAN HUANG, GUOSHENG FU, CHUNJIAN LI, YUGANG DONG, CHUNSHENG WANG, XINMIN ZHOU, YE KONG, ARISTIDES SOTOMAYOR, JOSE LUIS ACCINI MENDOZA, HENRY CASTILLO, MIGUEL URINA, GUSTAVO AROCA, MARITZA PEREZ, DORA INES MOLINA DE SALAZAR, GREGORIO SANCHEZ VALLEJO, MANZUR J. FERNANDO, HENRY GARCIA, LUIS HERNANDO GARCIA, EDGAR ARCOS, JUAN GOMEZ, FRANCISCO CUERVO MILLAN, FREDY ALBERTO TRUJILLO DADA, BORIS VESGA, GUSTAVO ADOLFO MORENO SILGADO, EVA ZIDKOVA, JEAN CLAUDE LUBANDA, MARKETA KALETOVA, RADIM KRYZA, GABRIEL MARCINEK, MAREK RICHTER, JINDRICH SPINAR, JIRI MATUSKA, MARTIN TESAK, ZUZANA MOTOVSKA, MARIAN BRANNY, JIRI MALY, MARTIN MALY, MARTIN WIENDL, LENKA FOLTYNOVA CAISOVA, JOSEF SLABY, PETR VOJTISEK, JAN PIRK, LENKA SPINAROVA, ANDREW W. MURPHY, WAN AZMAN WAN AHMAD, TOMMY ANDERSSON, DAVID AUSTIN, ROBERT BLACK, PHILIP ROBERTS-THOMSON, JOSEPH SELVANAYAGAM

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Abstract

Background: Patients with peripheral artery disease have an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Antiplatelet agents are widely used to reduce these complications. Methods: This was a multicentre, double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial for which patients were recruited at 602 hospitals, clinics, or community practices from 33 countries across six continents. Eligible patients had a history of peripheral artery disease of the lower extremities (previous peripheral bypass surgery or angioplasty, limb or foot amputation, intermittent claudication with objective evidence of peripheral artery disease), of the carotid arteries (previous carotid artery revascularisation or asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis of at least 50%), or coronary artery disease with an ankle–brachial index of less than 0·90. After a 30-day run-in period, patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive oral rivaroxaban (2·5 mg twice a day) plus aspirin (100 mg once a day), rivaroxaban twice a day (5 mg with aspirin placebo once a day), or to aspirin once a day (100 mg and rivaroxaban placebo twice a day). Randomisation was computer generated. Each treatment group was double dummy, and the patient, investigators, and central study staff were masked to treatment allocation. The primary outcome was cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction or stroke; the primary peripheral artery disease outcome was major adverse limb events including major amputation. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01776424, and is closed to new participants. Findings: Between March 12, 2013, and May 10, 2016, we enrolled 7470 patients with peripheral artery disease from 558 centres. The combination of rivaroxaban plus aspirin compared with aspirin alone reduced the composite endpoint of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke (126 [5%] of 2492 vs 174 [7%] of 2504; hazard ratio [HR] 0·72, 95% CI 0·57–0·90, p=0·0047), and major adverse limb events including major amputation (32 [1%] vs 60 [2%]; HR 0·54 95% CI 0·35–0·82, p=0·0037). Rivaroxaban 5 mg twice a day compared with aspirin alone did not significantly reduce the composite endpoint (149 [6%] of 2474 vs 174 [7%] of 2504; HR 0·86, 95% CI 0·69–1·08, p=0·19), but reduced major adverse limb events including major amputation (40 [2%] vs 60 [2%]; HR 0·67, 95% CI 0·45–1·00, p=0·05). The median duration of treatment was 21 months. The use of the rivaroxaban plus aspirin combination increased major bleeding compared with the aspirin alone group (77 [3%] of 2492 vs 48 [2%] of 2504; HR 1·61, 95% CI 1·12–2·31, p=0·0089), which was mainly gastrointestinal. Similarly, major bleeding occurred in 79 (3%) of 2474 patients with rivaroxaban 5 mg, and in 48 (2%) of 2504 in the aspirin alone group (HR 1·68, 95% CI 1·17–2·40; p=0·0043). Interpretation: Low-dose rivaroxaban taken twice a day plus aspirin once a day reduced major adverse cardiovascular and limb events when compared with aspirin alone. Although major bleeding was increased, fatal or critical organ bleeding was not. This combination therapy represents an important advance in the management of patients with peripheral artery disease. Rivaroxaban alone did not significantly reduce major adverse cardiovascular events compared with asprin alone, but reduced major adverse limb events and increased major bleeding. Funding: Bayer AG.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)219-229
Number of pages11
JournalThe Lancet
Volume391
Issue number10117
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 20 Jan 2018

Keywords

  • Peripheral arterial disease
  • Cardiovascular morbidity
  • Carotid artery
  • Asprin
  • Rivaroxaban

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