In this article, a robust model predictive control (MPC) is proposed for the gate-controlled series capacitor (GCSC) to contribute to load frequency control. The proposed control model consists of a two-layer MPC in which a nominal MPC produces an initial control signal together with a prediction of system frequency response in a nominal system without uncertainty. An ancillary MPC then produces a control command for the actual system with uncertainty based on measurements, and signals provided by the nominal system. The control signals are provided in such a way that the error in the frequency response of the actual system is minimized with respect to that of the nominal system. Optimization procedures are also conducted to attain optimal values of weighting coefficients associated with the input, and output in the objective functions. Constraints associated with system, and GCSC control are also taken in providing the control signals into consideration. A linear model is presented to formulate the contribution of GCSC control to the power flow of tie-line. The effectiveness of the proposed method in dealing with uncertainties is compared with a conventional MPC, a scheme with proportional-integral controllers, and a system without GCSC. The method robustness is also illustrated by case studies with load uncertainty, and wind power fluctuations, and also uncertainty of parameters. The impact of the delay in communication links on the performance of the control scheme is also evaluated.
- Automatic generation control (AGC)
- communication delay
- gate-controlled series capacitor (GCSC)
- load frequency control (LFC)
- model predictive control (MPC)