Objective: The aim of this study was.to systematically review the published literature of observational studies evaluating the safety and effectiveness of hospital in the home (HITH) and outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) in the general population, older people and children. Study design: The review included retrospective studies and prospective studies performed on HITH and OPAT within different age groups. Only the studies that analysed the safety and effectiveness of HITH and OPAT were included for review. Data sources: A literature search of electronic databases CINAHL, Web of Science, PubMed and SCOPUS from 1997 to 2016 was performed. Data synthesis: Forty-four studies met the inclusion criteria. Five studies were undertaken on HITH within the general population, 26 studies were undertaken on OPAT within the general population, 8 studies were on HITH and OPAT for older people and 5 studies were on OPAT with children. More than 88% of the studies reported a cure or treatment success rate of greater than 80%. Adverse events with drugs ranged from 0% to 30.2%; adverse events with vascular access devices ranged from 0% to 29%; readmission rate varied from 1% to 26%; mortality varied from 0% to 27.5%. Conclusions: This review quantifies the rates of success and harm in real world practice, and demonstrates that while most patients experience treatment success, adverse events may be high in some groups. However, the methodologies used to measure these parameters were inconsistent and some demographic groups had only a small number of studies.
- outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy, OPAT
- hospital in the home, HITH
- systematic review