Scaling factors for the in vitro–in vivo extrapolation (IV–IVE) of renal drug and xenobiotic glucuronidation clearance

Kathleen Knights, Shane Spencer, John Fallon, Nuy Chau, Phillip Smith, John Miners

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    36 Citations (Scopus)


    Aim To determine the scaling factors required for inclusion of renal drug glucuronidation clearance in the prediction of total clearance via glucuronidation (CLUGT). Methods Microsomal protein per gram of kidney (MPPGK) was determined for human 'mixed' kidney (n = 5) microsomes (MKM). The glucuronidation activities of deferiprone (DEF), propofol (PRO) and zidovudine (AZT) by MKM and paired cortical (KCM) and medullary (KMM) microsomes were measured, along with the UGT 1A6, 1A9 and 2B7 protein contents of each enzyme source. Unbound intrinsic clearances (CLint,u,UGT) for PRO and morphine (MOR; 3- and 6-) glucuronidation by MKM, human liver microsomes (HLM) and recombinant UGT1A9 and 2B7 were additionally determined. Data were scaled using in vitro-in vivo extrapolation (IV-IVE) approaches to assess the influence of renal CLint,u,UGT on the prediction accuracy of the calculated CLUGT values of PRO and MOR. Results MPPGK was 9.3 ± 2.0 mg g-1 (mean ± SD). The respective rates of DEF (UGT1A6), PRO (UGT1A9) and AZT (UGT2B7) glucuronidation by KCM were 1.4-, 5.2- and 10.5-fold higher than those for KMM. UGT 1A6, 1A9 and 2B7 were the only enzymes expressed in kidney. Consistent with the activity data, the abundance of each of these enzymes was greater in KCM than in KMM. The abundance of UGT1A9 in MKM (61.3 pmol mg-1) was 2.7 fold higher than that reported for HLM. Conclusions Scaled renal PRO glucuronidation CLint,u,UGT was double that of liver. Renal CLint,u,UGT should be accounted for in the IV-IVE of UGT1A9 and considered for UGT1A6 and 2B7 substrates.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1153-1164
    Number of pages12
    JournalBritish Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
    Issue number6
    Early online date2016
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2016


    • human kidney microsomes
    • microsomal yield
    • renal drug glucuronidation clearance
    • UGT1A9
    • UGT2B7


    Dive into the research topics of 'Scaling factors for the in vitro–in vivo extrapolation (IV–IVE) of renal drug and xenobiotic glucuronidation clearance'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this