This chapter peruses the causes, consequences and implications of changes in the supply and demand side of consequences of demographic change as a non-traditional transnational challenge in the emerging security problem space. Demography is the study of population structure and change as a result of interaction effects among fertility, mortality and immigration. Political demography is the study of how change in the size, distribution, and composition of population affects both politics and government. It examines communal relations, political behaviour and social institutions as a process of change in demographic trends. This chapter in particular surveys distributive effects of resources and political power as a result of changing urban and rural, religious, regional, ethnic, elite, and cohort population subgroups, and their impact on domestic, regional and global security environments.