Scientific foundations for an IUCN Red List of Ecosystems

David Keith, Jon Paul Rodríguez, Kathryn Rodríguez-Clark, Emily Nicholson, Kaisu Aapala, Alfonso Alonso, Marianne Asmussen, Steven Bachman, Alberto Basset, Edmund Barrow, John Benson, Melanie Bishop, Ronald Bonifacio, Thomas Brooks, Mark Burgman, Patrick Comer, Francisco Comín, Franz Essl, Don Faber-Langendoen, Peter FairweatherRobert Holdaway, Michael Jennings, Richard Kingsford, Rebecca Lester, Ralph Mac Nally, Michael McCarthy, Justin Moat, María Oliveira-Miranda, Phil Pisanu, Brigitte Poulin, Tracey Regan, Uwe Riecken, Mark Spalding, Sergio Zambrano-Martínez

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    338 Citations (Scopus)


    An understanding of risks to biodiversity is needed for planning action to slow current rates of decline and secure ecosystem services for future human use. Although the IUCN Red List criteria provide an effective assessment protocol for species, a standard global assessment of risks to higher levels of biodiversity is currently limited. In 2008, IUCN initiated development of risk assessment criteria to support a global Red List of ecosystems. We present a new conceptual model for ecosystem risk assessment founded on a synthesis of relevant ecological theories. To support the model, we review key elements of ecosystem definition and introduce the concept of ecosystem collapse, an analogue of species extinction. The model identifies four distributional and functional symptoms of ecosystem risk as a basis for assessment criteria: A) rates of decline in ecosystem distribution; B) restricted distributions with continuing declines or threats; C) rates of environmental (abiotic) degradation; and D) rates of disruption to biotic processes. A fifth criterion, E) quantitative estimates of the risk of ecosystem collapse, enables integrated assessment of multiple processes and provides a conceptual anchor for the other criteria. We present the theoretical rationale for the construction and interpretation of each criterion. The assessment protocol and threat categories mirror those of the IUCN Red List of species. A trial of the protocol on terrestrial, subterranean, freshwater and marine ecosystems from around the world shows that its concepts are workable and its outcomes are robust, that required data are available, and that results are consistent with assessments carried out by local experts and authorities. The new protocol provides a consistent, practical and theoretically grounded framework for establishing a systematic Red List of the world's ecosystems. This will complement the Red List of species and strengthen global capacity to report on and monitor the status of biodiversity.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article numbere62111
    Pages (from-to)e62111
    Number of pages25
    JournalPLoS One
    Issue number5
    Publication statusPublished - 10 May 2013


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