Our earliest version of the Thomas Rymer story is the medieval romanceThomas off Ersseldoune(c.1430). There is a four hundred year lacuna before the ballad "Thomas Rymer", our next surviving version, is recorded in the early 1800s. In the intervening time the narrative changed very little but the dynamic of the piece, radically. The romance transformed into the highly subversive ballad, "Thomas Rymer". Central to this transformation is the reconceptualization of the romance's heroine. Referred to simply as the "lufly lady" and caught between her husband, the fay King, and a mere mortal, Thomas, she becomes in the ballad the powerful Queen of the Fairies. The ballad is structured around a series of revelations in which the enigmatic Queen assumes the roles of Eve and Mary, and finally Christ Himself. I will explore the implications of this extraordinary ballad. Moreover, I suggest that it is Queen Elizabeth herself who, ironically, enables the heroine's transformation. "Ironically" because it appears that it was Elizabeth's own restrictions, designed to suppress heretical, seditious or radical literature, which forcedThomas off Ersseldoune(and many other romances which employed religious imagery or figures) out of the written domain and into the oral tradition. And yet, it is Elizabeth who, in creating the image of herself as a female prince, as the Faerie Queen, inspires a new literary vocabulary designed to describe female executive power, without which it would have been impossible to imagine a figure such as the ballad's Queen of the Fairies.