Sex/Gender Differences in CARS2 and GARS-3 Item Scores: Evidence of Phenotypic Differences Between Males and Females with ASD

Joanna M. Tsirgiotis, Robyn L. Young, Nathan Weber

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Growing evidence suggests that autistic females are more likely to be diagnostically overlooked than males, perhaps due to differences in ASD presentations (van Wijngaarden-Cremers in JAMA 44:627-635, 2014). To investigate specific behaviours in which differences lie, we analysed profiles of 777 children using the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (Scholper in JAMA 29:489-493, 2010) or Gilliam Autism Rating Scale (Gilliam, 2014). Males demonstrated greater difficulty in six CARS2-ST items and seven behaviours on the GARS-3, mostly reflecting restricted and repetitive behaviours. Across all instruments, the only area in which females showed greater difficulty was fear or nervousness (CARS2-ST). No meaningful differences emerged from the CARS2-HF analysis. Where males showed greater difficulty, females were more likely to present with developmentally typical behaviour.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3958-3976
Number of pages19
JournalJournal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Volume52
Issue number9
Early online date17 Sep 2021
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2022

Keywords

  • Autism
  • Female presentation
  • Gender
  • Phenotype
  • Sex

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