Extracellular vesicles (EVs) containing specific cargo molecules from the cell of origin are naturally secreted from bacteria. EVs play significant roles in protecting the bacterium, which can contribute to their survival in the presence of antibiotics. Herein, we isolated EVs from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in an environment with or without stressor by adding ampicillin at a lower concentration than the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). We investigated whether EVs from MRSA under stress condition or normal condition could defend susceptible bacteria in the presence of several β-lactam antibiotics, and directly degrade the antibiotics. A comparative proteomic approach was carried out in both types of EVs to investigate β-lactam resistant determinants. The secretion of EVs from MRSA under antibiotic stressed conditions was increased by 22.4-fold compared with that of EVs without stress. Proteins related to the degradation of β-lactam antibiotics were abundant in EVs released from the stressed condition. Taken together, the present data reveal that EVs from MRSA play a crucial role in the survival of β-lactam susceptible bacteria by acting as the first line of defense against β-lactam antibiotics, and antibiotic stress leads to release EVs with high defense activity.
- Antimicrobial resistance