Sim TRACT: A Reflective Conceptual Framework for Simulation Debriefing

Lynette Gum, Jennene Greenhill, Kerry Dix

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

    15 Citations (Scopus)


    Ideally, debriefing will encourage learners to critically reflect in a supportive peer learning environment. Currently, the debriefing process lacks a conceptual framework to guide both facilitators and learners. Transformative learning theory provides a process for critical reflection which promotes learners to engage in critical discourse and share their knowledge and assumptions. The purpose of the article is to (1) explore the extent to which the simulation and debriefing process reflects transformative learning, as described by Mezirow; and (2) introduce a reflective conceptual framework for postsimulation debriefing. A qualitative study explored 16 health professionals' perceptions of simulation sessions, in particular the postsimulation debriefing process. The article discusses three key themes: self-reflexivity, connectedness, and social context in relation to postsimulation debriefing. Authors explain how the debriefing process can reflect transformative learning which can assist participants to translate learning into practice. Following this, the authors propose a reflective conceptual framework for debriefing. The Sim TRACT™ model can equip educators with effective debriefing skills and encourage transformative learning to take place.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article numberPublications Data Collection
    Pages (from-to)21-41
    Number of pages21
    JournalJournal of Transformative Education
    Issue number1
    Publication statusPublished - Jan 2011


    • critical reflection
    • debriefing
    • reflective learning
    • simulation
    • transformative learning


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