Introduction: Previous studies have linked short sleep duration, poor sleep quality, and late sleep timing with lower health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in children. However, almost all studies relied solely on self-reported sleep information, and most studies were conducted in high-income countries. To address these gaps, we studied both device-measured and self-reported sleep characteristics in relation to HRQoL in a sample of children from 12 countries that vary widely in terms of economic and human development. Methods: The study sample included 6,626 children aged 9-11 years from Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Finland, India, Kenya, Portugal, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Waist-worn actigraphy was used to measure total sleep time, bedtime, wake-up time, and sleep efficiency on both weekdays and weekends. Children also reported ratings of sleep quantity and quality. HRQoL was measured by the KIDSCREEN-10 survey. Multilevel regression models were used to determine the relationships between sleep characteristics and HRQoL. Results: Results showed considerable variation in sleep characteristics, particularly duration and timing, across study sites. Overall, we found no association between device-measured total sleep time, sleep timing or sleep efficiency, and HRQoL. In contrast, self-reported ratings of poor sleep quantity and quality were associated with HRQoL. Conclusions: Self-reported, rather than device-based, measures of sleep are related to HRQoL in children. The discrepancy related to sleep assessment methods highlights the importance of considering both device-measured and self-reported measures of sleep in understanding its health effects.
- Health related quality of life
- Sleep duration
- Sleep efficiency
- Sleep timing
- Total sleep time