Whilst slum upgrading is often seen as one of the more effective ways of tackling urban poverty, the approaches taken by slum upgrading policies vary considerably, as do their degrees of success. This article reports on a comparative study of slum upgrading experiences in Bandung, Indonesia; Quezon City, Philippines; and Hanoi, Vietnam. It was carried out using a modification of the sustainable livelihoods framework that considered upgrading policies in a hierarchy of levels. The study demonstrated the importance of some form of security of tenure (the definition of which varied across the case studies), a need for sustainable economic activities to be incorporated into the upgrading, the critical importance of governance and institutions and significance of the contributions of the community and elements of civil society.
- Slum upgrading
- South East Asia