Historically, small schools have played a very important role in the provision of schooling in Australia. Numerically, using an enrolment of 200 or less, small schools represent approximately 45% of the schools in Australia. Population growth and the consequences of this, in particular for food production, water and energy, mean that the significance of small schools is likely to increase into the future, because many small schools are in rural areas where the 'basics for life' are produced, managed or extracted. This in turn has implications for how small schools are valued and resourced by governments and policy-makers. Research undertaken in 2010 is used to identify potential major improvement in the preparation and support of leaders for small schools, given the importance of leadership to the effectiveness and impact of schooling.