Despite evidence showing the importance of social determinants of Indigenous health and Indigenous rights for health and equity, they are not always recognised within policy. This scoping review identified research on public policy and Indigenous health through a systematic search. Key themes identified included the impact of ongoing colonisation; the central role of government in realising rights; and the difficulties associated with the provision of mainstream services for Indigenous Peoples, including tokenism towards Indigenous issues and the legacy of past policies of assimilation. Our approach to problem representation was guided by Bacchi (2009). Findings from the review show social determinants of Indigenous health and Indigenous rights may be acknowledged in policy rhetoric, but they are not always a priority for action within policy implementation.