Background: Hypertension is common in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Dietary sodium plays an important regulatory role in blood pressure management. However, dietary sodium intakes and the major food sources of dietary sodium have yet to be thoroughly investigated in individuals with T2DM. Methods: In a cross-sectional study sample of 88 overweight and obese men (n=52) and women (n=36) with T2DM in Adelaide, Australia, sodium intake and excretion was investigated using two different methodologies, including a 4-day weighed food record and 24-h urinary sodium excretion. The major dietary contributors to sodium intake in this population were also explored. Results: Mean (SD) 24-h urinary sodium excretion was greater (P<0.001) in males [195.1(74.6)mmol] compared to females [144.3(41.8)mmol]. Breads and cereals (B&Cs) were the largest contributors to dietary sodium intake (23% of intake). There was an association between sodium intake from B&Cs and 24-h urinary sodium excretion (r=0.235; P=0.02); however, when controlled for gender, B&Cs were not associated with urinary sodium excretion (males, r=0.134; P=0.343; females, r=0.102; P=0.554). Conclusions: The findings of the present study show that sodium intake and excretion in individuals with T2DM is more than two-fold greater than the current recommendations for chronic disease prevention. B&Cs were the major dietary contributors of sodium intake, suggesting that they are primary targets for a reduction in their sodium content.
- Breads and cereals
- Type 2 diabetes