We report on surface-engineered microarrays that provide in situ cell sorting, localization, and immobilization of various subsets of human primary lymphocytes, followed by an on-chip bioassay for ionizing-radiation-induced cytogenetic damage. The microarray format eliminates the necessity of separating cell sub-populations by alternative means (such as fluorescence- or magnetic-activated cell sorting) prior to performing informational bioassays. To exemplify the potential of this on-chip cytometry approach, we have integrated the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome (CBMNcyt) assay with the microarray platform for analysis of the chromosome damage profile of specific subsets of human peripheral lymphocytes. Microarray results were compared with data obtained from the traditional CBMNcyt assay on heterogeneous lymphocyte populations, and with flow cytometry data. Our results suggest that cytogenetic damage caused by ionizing radiation is not uniformly distributed across all lymphocytes subsets, but rather concentrated in specific subsets. The salient features of our approach are that it requires very small volumes of reagents, allows sorting of lymphocyte subsets in situ, increases parallelism of cell assays and is amenable to high content microscopy analysis. The on-chip cytometry format opens new vistas for advanced cell-based assays, potentially bringing to light important information which remains hidden with conventional assays and hence engendering new discoveries in cell biology.