Space resource activities and the evolution of international space law

Melissa de Zwart, Stacey Henderson, Michelle Neumann

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)
288 Downloads (Pure)


We are experiencing a period of renewed interest in human activities in outer space and, in particular, the return of humans to the Moon. Multiple lunar missions, including the NASA led Artemis project and the China and Russia International Lunar Research Station propose a sustained human presence on the Moon which will require in-situ resource extraction and usage. This article explores the likely impact of statements and actions by states on the future evolution of international space law in relation to space resource activities, highlighting the urgent need for greater clarity in the law regarding space resource activities. It will examine the relevant international law, domestic legislation, multilateral agreements, and recent international discussions concerning space resource activities. It concludes that the current international space law regime lacks clear laws regarding space resource activities and emphasises the importance of space law evolving in order to progress with industry and exploration.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)155-162
Number of pages8
Early online date9 Jun 2023
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2023


  • space resource utilisation
  • space law
  • space mining
  • regulation
  • international law
  • Artemis Accords


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